Creating urban green space is of vital importance to those who are looking for solutions to upgrade and sustain cities.  The need to reduce urban heat island effect (UHI) and the impact of sediments and pollution is a highlight among municipalities and landscape architects.  There are specific relationships to spatial patterns as well as how this… Read more

Cityscapes have the ability to improve their infrastructure.  Reducing heat island effect, sediment run – off and poorly constructed hardscapes is essential to new urba development.  An approach which is now available for landscape architects is natural porous pathway materials.  This provides an alternative solution that assists with balance between the environment and hardscapes for… Read more

Urbanization and the growth of cities offers more resources for communities.  It also has a direct impact on the environment and health of those who are a part of the urban areas.  Understanding how to upgrade urban areas is a concern with the landscapes and hardscapes now being developed.  Materials for sustainable cities as well… Read more

Urbanization and infrastructure was based on convenience of location and accumulated resources.  However, the public spaces did not look at the environmental impact of the regions where building quickly took place.  The heat island effect is one which continues to threaten the environment with rising temperatures and constraints.  Many are finding that if the path… Read more

Population increases and consolidation of activity in cities and urban areas is changing the climate.  When there is a large amount of density, it also impacts the environment with pollution, accumulated waste and heat from human activities.  Man made items impact the environment, specifically with the development and use of things such as new buildings… Read more

Building urban pathways today requires more knowledge and new strategies.  In the past, landscapes were developed by basic qualities of the materials, used for design, aesthetics and practicality.  Today, the environmental demands and knowledge requires an alteration in how landscape architects approach their use of materials.  Using approaches that reduce the heat island effect is… Read more

Low impact development changes the cityscape, specifically with the use of a specific landscape supplies.  Building sustainability requires using specific materials and permeable surfaces to alter the current complexities of hardscape areas.  By using environmentally friendly materials, there is the ability to have lower impact on the environment while having efficiency with the materials that… Read more

One common phenomenon we see in large cities is the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Temperatures in urban areas are are significantly higher than in the surrounding rural areas. The temperature difference is larger at night, especially when winds in the area are weak. The biggest concern with UHIs is that they contribute to overall… Read more